Who is Gdue suitable for?
High blood sugar level and weight gain are important risk factors for many serious diseases.
Both are considered risk factors for many serious diseases and are, therefore, two issues to keep under control.
These diseases include diabetes, metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis (‘fatty liver disease’). Excess weight, on the other hand, leads to many other illnesses including cardiac, osteoarticular and respiratory diseases. Overweight and obesity also significantly increase the risk of acute cardiovascular events.
Gdue is an essential dietary ally for patients suffering from overweight, obesity, dysglycaemia, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk.
Dysglycaemia can last for several years and is characterised by slight changes in blood sugar levels and resistance to insulin.
An altered blood sugar level does not always mean a true diagnosis of diabetes. The diagnosis is made in people whose blood sugar level is greater than or equal to 100 milligrams per decilitre (mg/dL) but less than 126 mg/dL.
These people may not be considered diabetic, but they do need to be thoroughly examined and monitored. Dysglycaemia has negative effects on certain tissues, and evidence suggests that typical complications of the disease are already present when diabetes is clinically diagnosed.
It is therefore important to take early action on this delicate clinical condition.
It is possible to go back to a state of normality from pre-diabetes by implementing the right strategies. Or at least, to significantly delay the evolution of the disease.
Manifested diabetes, on the other hand, cannot be reversed, and this contributes to making it one of the most important public health problems in the world. If left untreated, diabetes can seriously damage various target organs and tissues (eyes, kidneys, nerves, arteries and heart).
It is also referred to as ‘Insulin Resistance Syndrome‘ as this is thought to be the main cause. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates how glucose is transported from the blood into the cells and how it is used.
Metabolic Syndrome is a condition characterised by the simultaneous presence of several metabolic risk factors in the same individual:
- overweight and obesity: characterised by a large waist circumference due to the presence of abdominal fat (88 cm for women and 102 cm for men). Obesity manifests when the body weight exceeds the ideal weight by more than 40%. Genetic, endocrine and metabolic factors can also contribute to obesity. The main cause, however, is excess intake of calories and an inadequate lifestyle (due to a lack of physical activity). The risk of developing metabolic syndrome increases if waist circumference is ≥ 94 cm in males and ≥ 88 cm in females.
- glucose intolerance: the most common condition is type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is caused by the chronic presence of high blood glucose levels, caused by impaired glucose tolerance, resulting from an absolute or relative defect in insulin secretion or the inability of peripheral tissues to use insulin (insulin resistance).
- arterial hypertension: blood pressure is high when the systolic pressure is equal to or greater than 140 mm Hg, and the diastolic pressure is equal to or greater than 90 mm Hg. In Italy, this condition affects one out of three adults, and more than 50% of patients over 65 years old.
- dyslipidemia: indicates high levels of lipids in the blood (LDL cholesterol and/or triglycerides) and a low concentration of ‘good’ HDL cholesterol.
It has been scientifically proven that Metabolic Syndrome increases cardiovascular risk as well as the risk of certain forms of cancer..
The correct scientific name is non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and covers a range of different conditions (from fatty infiltration of the liver to end-stage liver disease). Its main characteristic is excessive accumulation of triglycerides in the liver (steatosis) without any other obvious cause of chronic liver diseases (e.g., viral, autoimmune or genetic factors). It also manifests even with limited alcohol consumption (less than 20 g/day for women and 30 g/day for men, which is approximately equivalent to: 1 mug of beer, 1 ½ glasses of wine, 1 small glass of spirits).
It is very common in obese people, diabetic subjects, people with insulin resistance, or people suffering from hypertriglyceridemia.
Fatty liver disease can also affect children, especially in cases of obesity or severe overweight. The prevalence of non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis in the general population of Western countries is estimated to be 20-30%.
NAFLD is usually more frequent in males and increases with age. Its diagnosis is influenced by the method and criteria used and is related to lifestyle.
The other risk factors for non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis are:
- metabolic syndrome: 70-90% of patients have NAFLD
- diet: excess consumption of foods rich in cholesterol and saturated fat
- chronic obstructive sleep apnoea and other respiratory disorders
- genetic factors: presence of the PNPLA3 gene
Non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis is strongly correlated with diabetes:
- the prevalence of NAFLD among diabetic individuals is more than twice as high as the rates in the general population
- the overall prevalence of NAFLD among patients with type 2 diabetes is 55.5%
Extra pounds, especially if located in the abdomen, are not just an aesthetic problem.
The body has two main types of fat: subcutaneous fat (located under the skin) and visceral fat (located around the organs).
The amount of subcutaneous fat that develops depends not only on genetic factors, but also on lifestyle (such as physical activity or diet).
The main causes of skin fat are:
- having more calories in the diet than those that are consumed;
- sedentary lifestyle;
- the presence of diseases such as diabetes (or insulin resistance).
Subcutaneous fat has important functions, for instance, storing energy, regulating body temperature, and protecting muscles and bones. However, when the body accumulates excess weight, this can lead to cardiovascular diseases and strokes, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, some forms of cancer, sleep apnoea, fatty liver disease, and nephropathy.
Overweight is an important risk factor for a person’s overall mental and physical well-being. Overweight is a typical condition of the affluent world where the consumption of sugar and fat (high-energy nutrients) has increased, and physical activity has decreased significantly. Keeping one’s weight under control is, therefore, essential.